Saturday, 12 May 2012

Basics Of Neuroscience

Hello Friends!!!!!!!
Today, in this article, I would be writing about the basis of Neuroscience.

First of all, I would like to tell you what is Neuroscience?

Neuroscience is a branch or part of science that  mostly deals with how our brain works. And this is one of the part of science that can tell you that your brain is not just a simple brain but it is really more complex than even a super computer. It's complexity is really hard to solve and study. So, in this article, I will only write about some of the basics of Neuroscience and also I recommend you to read my article which deals with the Neuromatrix of pain, i.e., how is pain caused and it tells about the parts of our brain involved in discovering pain.

So, let me first start with the basis of brain anatomy. Scientists have divided the brain into three parts in common. They are:

  1. Cerebellum
  2. Cerebrum
  3. And Medulla
First I would like to talk about Cerebrum. The Cerebrum is the part of our brain that almost processes all the data that comes in our brain through the spinal cord or all the information that comes into our brain. The image below shows the Cerebrum and it's four parts:
Human Brain

The cerebrum is again divided into four parts:
  1. Frontal Lobe
  2. Parietal Lobe
  3. Occipital Lobe
  4. And Temporal Lobe
First let me talk about the Frontal Lobe, this part of our(Human) brain is basically involved in planning and reasoning and all the other types of higher level functions that only human's can perform. More specifically, The Prefrontal Cortex is the part of our brain that is involved in higher order functions. And this part part, i.e., The Prefrontal Cortex, is only found in the human brain, that means that it is the special part that allowed us to perform the functions that animals cannot do.
Prefrontal Cortex
The image above shows the Prefrontal Cortex in green color. 

Now moving towards the other part of our brain, Parietal Lobe.

This part of our brain is mostly involved in the processing of movements. This part of our brain also helps us to keep an record of where our body parts are located in space, for example, close your eyes for some time and after you close your eyes, you still know where your body parts are or where you leg is right now, where you fingers are right now, so this is the part that makes that thing possible, or in other words, it contains a type of blueprint of all your body parts. 

This part also works in coordination with your occipital lobe which is involved in processing visual signals so that you are able to pick up a pencil when you see it.(discussed later)

As I have already said, that the Occipital Lobe is involved in processing visual signals. But for the people whoa re blind from birth may also use this part of their brain to process the auditory signals, it is usually found that the people that are blind from birth, have a greater sense of audio then any other normal person, the reason behind this is that this people usually train their Occipital Lobe to process audio.

Next comes our Temporal Lobe, the Temporal Lobe is a part in our brain which is involved in processing audio signals. It also contains the part of our brain, known as Hippocampus(HI-PO-KAM-PUS), that is involved in processing the memory portion, that is, the thing that we need to remember are processed here and are then sent to long term memory. It is like the gateway of the memory to be remembered. But one thing should be noticed that it only makes us remember the things but it does not store them, it sends that "thing" to the respective Lobe or Cortex it belongs to. For Example, the memory of audio will be sent to the Temporal Lobe, the memory of vision will be sent to the Occipital Lobe etc. Afterwards, this all the memories can be combined to form a image of what happened in the past or the thing we need to remember.

The Occipital Lobe also sends the signals to the Temporal Lobe and Parietal Lobe, for recognizing and picking up an object. The Temporal Lobe recognizes the object and the Parietal Lobe plans our actions to pick up the object.

Now we come to the part of Cerebellum, the Cerebellum is usually involved in coordinating motor functions, i.e., the functions of movement. The movement signal after getting processed in the Parietal Lobe, it reaches the Cerebellum. The Cerebellum also controls reflex functions. For Example, if you try to hit a trained person in self defense techniques, such as Bear Grylls, you will find that they have taken the decision to attack you in the correct manner in less than a second, the reason behind that is that the signal did not go to the Cerebrum, instead the Cerebellum used the neural connections in it to perform that action. And also you can modify the neural connections in the Cerebellum by practicing regularly.

Last comes our Spinal Cord, it is a part that takes signals from our brain to the body and also from the body to our brain.

I cannot write more than that right now as I am tired, sorry for any mistakes in this article.

Thanks for reading!!!!!!!!!

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