Monday, 30 April 2012

How does life start?

Hello again Guys!!!!!!!

Nowadays I am busy in school work and I don't get much time to write scientific articles in this blog but don't worry, I will surely be putting new articles on this blog and will try to discover how does life start? I recommend you to read this link:

Thanks for your support!!!!!!!!!

Saturday, 28 April 2012

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Abdominopelvic Cavity is a cavity located below our chest and extends till the urinary system.

First you need to know what is a Cavity?

A Cavity is a hollow part in our body that is filled with some fluid in it which protects and support the organs.

This is a simple definition of it but it might not be accurate.

So, now as you know what is Cavity. I would like to tell you that there are many other Cavities in our body such as Craniel Cavity(the cavity that contains our brain and spinal cord), Oral Cavity(the cavity of our mouth) and many other cavities. Abdominopelvic Cavity is one of them. As the name suggests, Abdominopelvic Cavity contains two cavities in it, they are Abdominal Cavity and Pelvic Cavity. Am sorry that I cannot post images of the Cavities as I cannot find them on internet. Just above the Abdominal Cavity is the Thoracic(THO-RA-SIK) Cavity. The thoracic cavity contains the lungs.
Thoracic Cavity.
The Thoracic Cavity has other several cavities in it. Each lung has it's own cavity known as Plueral(PLOORAL) Cavity. So, the left Pleural Cavity contains the left Lung and the right Pleural Cavity contains the right lung. Each Pleural Cavity has a membrane in it which allows the organs to adapt to the changing body positions and also reduce the friction between the organs known as Pleura(PLOORA). Almost all the cavities have their own membrane. This liquids are  differentiated in two types :
  1. Visceral Pleura
  2. Parietal Pleura
Am writing Pleuara this time because we are now talking about Thoracic Cavity. So, the Visceral Pleura is a liquid that coats the lungs and the Parietal Pleura is the liquid that lines the walls of the Thoracic Cavity. The both Pleural Cavities are differentiated from each other by the mediastinum(MI-DI-AS-TINUM).

The mediastinum contains the Pericardial Cavity that contains the Heart. Heart is enclosed in the Pericardial Cavity. The Pericardial Cavity also has a membrane  in it that protects and supports the heart that is known as Pericardium. And again the Pericardium is divided into Visceral Pericardium that lines the heart and the Parietal Pericardium that lines the wall of the Pericardial Cavity.

Pericardal Cavity

Parietal and Visceral Pericardium
Just inferior(below) the Thoracic Cavity is the Abdominopelvic Cavity. The Abdominopelvic Cavity is seperated from the Thoracic Cavity by Diaphragm(DI-FRAM). The Abdominopelvic Cavity has 2 parts, as said earlier, Abdominal Cavity and Pelvic Cavity. The Abdominal Cavity contains most of the part of the intestines, while the Pelvic Cavity contains most of the part of the Urinary System. The body organs in the Abdominopelvic Cavity are known as Visceral(VI-SA-RAL). And the membrane of the Abdominal Cavity is known as Peritoneum(PA-RI-TO-NI-UM) and as usual, Parietal Peritoneum lines the wall of the Abdominal Cavity and the Visceral Peritoneum lines the organs in the Abdominal Cavity.

That's all I wanted to include in this article and am sorry if their is any mistake in it because it took me time to understand all this.

Thanks for reading and please comment and share.

Monday, 23 April 2012

Neuromatrix of Pain

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Hello Again!!!!

In this post, I will be talking about the neuromatrix of pain, or in simple words, the way our brain understands the pain that is being felt. It's really a point of much debate in today's world that how our brain receives and processes the pain.

So, let's start.

First the pain is experienced by the nociceptive receptors located through out the body and nociception means pain, so in neurology we always use the word nociception instead of pain. So, first the pain is experienced by your nociceptive receptors and then it is sent to the Reticular Formation located in the Brainstem or Spinal Cord.
Now, Reticular Formation is the first part of the brain that receives the nociceptive signal and Reticular Formation helps us to get our concentration on that pain. Concentration plays an important role in the sensation of pain. And if we are concentrating on something else than the pain which is more important than the pain, then the Reticular Formation may not give give attention to pain and we might not feel it.
After it has passed the Reticular Formation, it goes to the Thalamas. Thalamas is a very main part in our brain which plays a very important role in almost every action of ours. The nociceptive signal goes to several specific nucleus of the Thalamas. They are:

  1. Ventral Posterolateral Nucleus(VPN Nucleus)
  2. Medial nuclie of Thalamas.
  3. Intralaminier nuclie of Thalamas.
The nociceptive signal after passing the Reticular Formation reaches the Ventral Posterolateral Nucleus or VPN Nucleus. This part of the Thalamas has very much food connections with the Somatosensory Cortex, which is located in the Parietal Lobe, and it plays an important role in accessing the intensity and the location of the pain.

Medial Nuclie of Thalamas has better connections with the motor cortex located in Frontal Lobe which plays an important role in generating motor functions or the movements related with the pain. For example, if you pour hot water on your hands, then the motor function will be removing your hands from the water, and thatt movement will be generated with the help of Medial portion of Thalamas which sends the signal to motor cortex.

Intralaminier Nuclie of Thalamas plays an important role in seeking attention towards the pain.

Now we come to another part important for seeking pain. After passing through the Thalamas, the nociceptive signal reaches the Primary and Secondary Somatosensory cortexes (S1 and S2). Scientists believe that the S1 is included in discriminating the various properties of pain and the S2 is usually involved in recognizing pain and remembering last pain. Experiments has also confirmed that the higher the activity in S1, the greater the pain will be.

But in an experiment, several persons were hypnotized and said that the pain that they will be given will very much than the pain's real capacity and others were said that the pain would be lesser than the normal capacity of the pain. When they were given a little amount of electric and their brain parts activity was measured, it was found that the activity in S1 was not changing with the intensity of the pain. The persons who were said that the pain will be greater were having the same activity level in S1 as the person's who were said that the pain will be lesser. In that experiment, the scientist also found that the Anterior Cingulate Cortex had different activity levels in the persons. Anterior Cingulate Cortex is involved in the affection component of pain. And we should remember that affection leads to emotion, and emotion will give you pain. So, the more the activity level in Anterior Cingulate Cortex, the more the pain you will feel.

But neuro scientist Burkhart Bromm said that the Posterior Cingulate Cortex receives the nociceptive signal before Anterior Cingulate Cortex. The Posterior Cingulate Cortex receives the signals after 220 milliseconds after the nociceptive signal starts.
He thought that this part is included in the affection component of pain, and we should remember that the affection leads to the creation of emotion which give rises to feeling of pain. So, the more the activity level in Posterior Cingulate Cortex, the more the pain.

But as you have observed that when an pain is felt, then you do some movements to escape from that pain, in the movement part, the Parietal Lobe of our brain plays an important role in generating a signal that would help us move. The movement done here is done with the help of Parietal Cortex which plays an important role in also planning other movements.

One another part of our brain also plays an important role in pain, that is the Hippocampus, the part of our brain which is involved in the formation of memory, and the memory might play a role in pain because when we feel a pain, our brain tries to associate it with the past memories of the pain, and the if we are experiencing the pain for the first time, our brain remembers the pain and even when we think about the pain, we might get the feeling of the same pain because of the release of certain hormones at that time.

This all parts work together to give you the feeling of pain and this is the reason that there is no certain area of our brain that we can remove to get rid of the feeling of pain, instead, many parts of our brain work together to give us the sensation of pain.

Thanks for reading this article.

Wednesday, 4 April 2012


Hello Guys!!!!

Today, I want to share a site with you which gives you medical books. Just go to and download as many free books you want.

Enjoy Reading!!!!!!!!!



This is a very big question. Before writing anything, I want to make clear that I don't want to hurt anyone's feeling. The post written is based on the ideas of Stephen Hawking. To answer this question, I will start with a simple scenery where there is a river flowing down a mountain. Now, a question, how does this river develop? The answer is that it developed through rain. How rain developed? The answer is that it developed because of suns heat, the sun evaporated the water and the water created the clouds. But how the sun developed heat? It's answer is that it developed the heat through a fusion or a chemical reaction that happens happens when 2 hydrogen atoms join to form helium which creates heat. But from where the hydrogen came? The answer is that it came from the explosion of Big Bang. At the time of Big Bang, a large amount of matter was released and hydrogen was created. But what caused Big Bang to happen? The reason behind Big Bang is still unknown. It might be that there was no reason behind Big Bang. But one interesting thing about Big Bang is that before Big Bang there was no time. So we can say that the universe did not required any type of reason to form or created or to come into existence. This gives us the answer that if there was no time before Big Bang, then it also means that the god even did not have the time to create the Universe. SO IT'S CLEAR THAT GOD DID NOT CREATE UNIVERSE. The rest depends on you if you believe in god or not. Below is the episode of Curiosity in which Stephen Hawking tried to answer this question.